Thursday, July 11, 2013


Nama : Muhammad Aidil B Md Zainol
No Matriks : 08DJK13F1019
Definition Of Protocol: Imagine the number of people communicating in the world, the number of different languages they use, the number of different machines they use, the number of ways in which they transmit data and the different software they use. We would never be able to communicate worldwide if there were no ‘standards’ governing the way we communicate and the way our machines treat data. These standards are sets of rules.
There are rules governing how data is transferred over networks, how they are compressed, how they are presented on the screen and so on. These set of rules are called protocols. There are many protocols, each one governing the way a certain technology works. For example, the IP protocol defines a set of rules governing the way computers use IP packets to send data over the Internet or any other IP-based network. It also defines addressing in IP. Likewise, we have other protocols like:

1.TCP: Transmission Control Protocol, used for the reliable transmission of data over a network.

2.HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol, used for transmitting and displaying information in the form of web pages on browsers.

3.FTP: File Transfer Protocol, used for file transfer (uploading and downloading) over the Internet

4.SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, used for email

5.Ethernet: Used for data transmission over a LAN.

6.Wi-Fi : One of the wireless protocols.

Picture Example :

 How does the connection work from home ?
To connect from home you need several things. Apart from a computer (obviously!) you'll need a phone connection, a modem or ADSL router, and some Internet software.
Things will be easier if you're using a relatively recent operation system, such as Windows Vista/XP or MacOSX, but it's possible to connect with older or more obscure systems.
With a modem and the appropriate software, you can dial up another modem connected to another computer, and establish a network connection with it. Usually, this computer is linked into the Internet, and so you're online.

How Information Travels on the Internet

Data travels across the internet in packets. Each packet can carry a maximum of 1,500 bytes. Around these packets is a wrapper with a header and a footer. The information contained in the wrapper tells computers what kind of data is in the packet, how it fits together with other data, where the data came from and the data's final destination.

Example : When you send an e-mail to someone, the message breaks up into packets that travel across the network. Different packets from the same message don't have to follow the same path. That's part of what makes the Internet so robust and fast. Packets will travel from one machine to another until they reach their destination. As the packets arrive, the computer receiving the data assembles the packets like a puzzle, recreating the message.

What is an Internet Service Provider?

An Internet Service Provider (also known as an ISP or even as an IAP, internet access provider) is a firm that offers subscribers access to the internet. This internet service provider maintains large runs of cabling and maintains network services in order to transfer and deliver web content to those paying the subscription fee. Typically, these internet service providers focus on DSL, Cable modem, wireless, and more recently, dedicated high-speed interconnects such as T1 or fiber optic service (typically abbreviated Fios). While far less common, ISPs still offer dial up internet service, which is gradually become a phased out. All in all, there are many different types of Internet Service Providers, and within each and every internet service provider there are often varying levels of service, coverage, as well as personal customer service that comes attached with it. An Internet Service Provider is a complete package of services, which should be researched and considered before an Internet Service Provider is selected.

Choosing a Broadband Provider

You need to think about:
  • Landline connection : Receiving broadband via ADSL, which is a term used to describe the aforementioned phone line connection, will give you faster Internet and a higher download limit other types of broadband, for instance mobile or satellite.
  • Length of contract : Longer contracts mean cheaper monthly fees, so tying yourself down to a 24-month broadband contract is going to work out cheaper in the long run and might even land you some handy freebies from your Internet service provider.
  • Usage limits :  If you purchase unlimited Internet, be certain to scour that contract thoroughly, as this is where companies can hit you with additional charges. The introduction of a 'fair usage policy' to unlimited broadband contracts enables companies to charge you or restrict your service if you go over a certain usage limit each month, despite apparently offering a service with no such limits.
  • Connection speed : If you are a light Internet user – opening emails, checking Facebook etc – a connection of below 10Mbps will suffice. If your usage is slightly heavier – watching BBC iPlayer occasionally, uploading videos to YouTube – a connection of between 10 and 25Mbps will do the trick. If you’re a big gamer or someone who likes to be constantly downloading, something even faster might be more up your street.
  • Family access : If you have small children, parental controls are available that give you the peace of mind that your little ones aren’t visiting any Internet sites they shouldn’t be. This software is provided for free with some contracts, while other providers may charge extra for this.

 Who Control The Internet
1.In part one of our three-part series on Internet governance, we look at whether the World Wide Web is truly open and free, and whether Web regulations are likely to stay as they are today.
The idea that anyone is controlling the Internet runs contrary to common knowledge. The Web has a tradition of hosting free content with relatively little government or regulatory interference, and is today backed by a fervent army of supporters ready to defend a free and open platform.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...